North Korea EMP Attack Would Destroy the Entire US in 45 Minutes – EMP Attack Would Kill 90% Of Americans Within A Year Without Power

EMP attack

EMP attack can destroy a nation’s entire infrastructure in a flash. “Experts agree that an all out cyber attack, beginning with an EMP (electromagnetic pulse) attack on our electronic infrastructure , would wipe out 90% of the human population of this country within a year years of the attack” .

“Yet our leaders are nearly all ill prepared for this near certain, not-too-distant event.”

To illustrate his concerns, McAfee linked to a letter to the Wall Street Journal from R. James Woolsey, former director of the CIA, and Peter Vincent Pry, who served on the CIA’s EMP Commission.

“The nuclear weapon would be detonated in orbit, perhaps during its first orbit, destroying much of the U.S. electric grid with a single explosion high above North America.”


VIA : futurescience.com

Very few people in industrialized countries do work that is not directly assisted by electronic computers, although that computerized assistance is often quite invisible to the average person.  Few people think about things such as the fact that whenever we buy some food item at a supermarket (and many others are buying the same item), the next time we go to that same supermarket, they still have about the same supplies that they had before.  There are invisible infrastructures all around us that are made up of advanced technology.  Most of us just take the magic for granted.

Few people stop to consider what would happen if, in an instant, the magic went away.  If our advanced technology were suddenly and completely destroyed, how would we manage to survive?  A nuclear EMP could make the magic go away.  I hope it never happens, and I don’t think that it is at all inevitable.  It makes no sense, however, to be blind to the danger.  It is both much less likely to happen — and also less likely to have a catastrophic impact — if, both as a civilization and as individuals, we are prepared for an attack on our advanced technology.  A nuclear EMP would be a seemingly magical attack upon our advanced technology, the technological infrastructure upon which our lives depend.

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Among all of the kinds of electromagnetic disturbances that can occur, though, it is important to keep things in perspective.  It is possible that a nuclear EMP may never happen where you live.  On the other hand, a severe solar storm that will destroy most of the world’s power grids appears nearly inevitable at this point.  Protection against the damage of a severe solar storm could be done easily and rather inexpensively by the electrical utilities; however it is not being done, and there are few signs that it will be done.  A severe solar storm poses little threat to electronics, but would take down the most important power grids in the world for a period of years.  This is a special problem in the United States, and is a severe threat in the eastern United States.  So, more important than preparing for a nuclear EMP attack is preparing for all of the ramifications of a severe solar storm which would cause an electrical power outage that would, in most areas, last for a period of years.  Most standby power systems would continue to function after a severe solar storm, but supplying the standby power systems with adequate fuel, when the main power grids are offline for years, could become a very critical problem.

In the mid-20th century, electricity was regarded as a convenience.  By the end of that century, electricity had become something that most people literally cannot live without for more than a few weeks.  This profound change has happened so gradually that very few people have even noticed.


This is a page about some of the things that individuals can do to prepare for an electromagnetic pulse attack or a severe solar storm.  I’m an electronics engineer who has been thinking about the EMP problem for more than 3 decades.  I even have an ancient Radio Shack TRS-80 Model 4P that has been retrofitted with a complete electromagnetic shield.  It’s just a personal antique, useless for anything but a personal reminder of how long I’ve been thinking about this problem.  That early-model personal computer didn’t even have a hard drive.

I also have a copy of a letter that I wrote to another science writer on March 28, 1987 in which I said, “An EMP attack on the U.S. does seem plausible to me.  Three or four (or maybe even one) nuclear weapons detonated in space would instantly shut down the U.S. economy.  It would cause billions of dollars worth of direct damage to electronics equipment and a much greater loss in indirect costs to the economy.”

I’ve spent much of my career working with radio and television transmitters on high mountaintops where there is a lot of lightning and other kinds of severe electromagnetic transients.  Many engineers who spend their careers working in fairly benign electromagnetic environments don’t realize the fragility of our technological infrastructure.  On this page, I’m going to concentrate on a nuclear EMP attack, but much of this also applies to natural events such as intense geomagnetic storms resulting from extremely large solar storms.

The threat of a sudden EMP attack that causes a widespread catastrophe is certainly an old problem.  Consider this Cold War era quotation from a widely-read and highly-respected publication more than 35 years ago:   “The United States is frequently crossed by picture-taking Cosmos series satellites that orbit at a height of 200 to 450 kilometers above the earth.  Just one of these satellites, carrying a few pounds of enriched plutonium instead of a camera, might touch off instant coast-to-coast pandemonium:   the U.S. power grid going out, all electrical appliances without a separate power supply (televisions, radios, computers, traffic lights) shutting down, commercial telephone lines going dead, special military channels barely working or quickly going silent.” — from “Nuclear Pulse (III):  Playing a Wild Card” by William J. Broad in Sciencemagazine, pages 1248-1251, June 12, 1981.

The situation would be much worse today than in 1981 due to our profound and ever-increasing dependence upon electricity and electronics for the basic maintenance of our lives.  In addition, the last remnants of the pre-electrical infrastructure, and the knowledge of how to use the components of that infrastructure, is slowly and completely disappearing.  Some people have said that the long-term loss of the power grid would send us back to the 19th century.  That belief is quite false because we have no 19th century infrastructure and very little knowledge of the practical use of 19th century infrastructure.  A long-term loss of the power grid would send us back to the middle ages for a number of years.

 

Although much of what is written below is about protecting one’s own personal electronic items (especially regarding communications), it is important to remember that the greatest threat, by far, to the life and well-being of you and your family comes from the damage to electrical and electronic systems that are outside of your personal control:  the national critical infrastructures.

The bulk of your EMP protection efforts must be directed toward protecting yourself from the results of the loss of the critical infrastructures that support our everyday lives.  All of our national critical infrastructures are dependent upon the electrical grid and our electronic infrastructure.

This is necessarily a rather long article because of the large amount of things that must be addressed when confronting the loss of national critical infrastructures, and this article is only a primer.  It does not cover everything.

 

First:   Another brief note about severe solar storms (and similar natural events), and then I’ll get back to nuclear EMP.  Solar storms would primarily affect the power grid, and are not likely to harm things like computers.  Also, solar storms would only disrupt communications temporarily, and would not be likely to cause direct harm to communications equipment (except for satellites).   An extremely large solar storm, though, would induce geomagnetic currents that could destroy a substantial fraction of the very largest transformers on the power grid (possibly over much of the world).  If this happened, electric power loss due to a large solar storm would be out for a period of years and possibly decades.  Unlike nuclear EMP, such a solar storm is an eventual inevitability.

The last solar storm that could have caused this level of damage happened in 1859, before the power grid was in place (although in 1921 a large solar storm, of briefer duration than the 1859 event, occurred which affected a much smaller area of the planet).  The power grid has only been in place for a fraction of one percent of human history, and a really large solar storm (of the size and duration of the 1859 event) has not happened in that time.  There is a general assumption that any solar event that is similar to, or larger than, the 1859 solar superstorm will simply never happen again, although there is no justification for such an assumption — in fact, we know that this assumption is false.  There is a good possibility that such a large-scale solar storm will happen in this century.  If it happens in the current situation without adequate spares for our largest transformers, a large part of the worldwide power grid (including 70 to 100 percent of the United States power grid) will be down for years.  It is encouraging, however, that awareness of this problem is growing and supplies of spare transformers are showing some signs of growth.

A 2008 study by Metatech found that the time required to obtain a replacement for any one of the 370 or so largest transformers in the United States was 3 years.  In a solar superstorm that affects vulnerable areas of the entire world, delivery times could easily be much longer.  The United States, which for many years had no capability to manufacture those transformers (and which is just now regaining that capability), will be at the end of a very long waiting line.  Since such a expansion of transformer manufacturing capability requires a lot of electrical power, the capability cannot be developed after an electromagnetic catastrophe.  The capability has to be developed before there is an actual critical need.  In the past five years, two United States companies have begun the process of expanding into the large transformer business, but it will take a considerable length of time before a reasonable number of spare transformers can be manufactured.

Because of the inevitability of a large solar superstorm, we have to accept the fact that the current electric power grid upon which our lives depend is only a temporary infrastructure.  This temporary infrastructure has served us very well, and we now have entrusted our very lives to it.  Of course, it is possible to build a resilient electrical grid.  In most countries, such as the United States, though, the will to make the electric grid resilient has been absent.

The fact that the electric power grid began as a convenience, but has become a necessity for sustaining life, is both one of the most beneficial, and one of the most dangerous, facts of 21st century existence.

We do not know how long the current power grid will last; but if it not replaced by a robust permanent infrastructure in time, hundreds of millions of people will die when the electric power grid collapses simultaneously in many countries.   How such a collapse occurs is very well known, and the methods to either prevent it, or to have spare transformers in place to fairly quickly repair it, are also well known.   Although these preventive measures would not be terribly expensive, they would take some time to put into place; and those things have never been done.

Provisions for insuring islands of power production within the country that would prevent millions of deaths could be put in place fairly quickly, and much less expensively, but this also has never been done — or, until recently, even been seriously considered, except by the few scientists and engineers who have seriously studied the fragility of the electric power grid.  There are finally signs, in 2013 and 2014, that this situation is beginning to change, but the process is very slow.

I am repeatedly asked about “faraday cages” for solar storms and protection of automobiles against solar storms.  I must repeat that this is an area where solar storms and nuclear EMP are very different.  Solar storms only produce something similar to the E3 component of nuclear EMP.   “Faraday cages” are not relevant for solar storms for anyone at ground level (unless you are planning to launch a satellite).  Solar storms will not destroy your car, (at least not any of the solar storms that have occurred in the past million years).  If you own an electric car, though, it may be wise to avoid charging it during an active severe geomagnetic storm.

Solar storms can, however, prevent your car from operating by preventing you from getting your fuel tank filled due to the lack of electricity at the gas stations.  This is another reason to never let the fuel tank in your car get below half full.

Many people who say that they have off-the-grid power systems are interconnected to the power grid in order to sell their excess power back to the main electric grid (what engineers call the bulk power grid).  From an EMP or solar storm standpoint, this interconnection presents the worst of all possible worlds.  Such an interconnection exposes a so-called off-the-grid system to all of the dangers of the power grid.  You can do this, but it just requires many extra levels of protection at the interconnect point (and usually some spare electronics boards).

The gravest danger posed by grid-tie solar power systems are the solar panel systems that are only grid-tie, with no internal transfer switch to allow solar power to be used by the home when the grid power is down.  These systems will reduce your electric bill while the the main power grid is working, but that is ALL that they will do.  It is very unfortunate that these have recently become the most popular kind of solar power system.  If you have a solar power system that goes down when the power grid goes down, you must be aware that your solar panel system will not protect you from EMP, solar storms, cyber-attacks or even ordinary power outages from hurricanes and other storms.  All that these common solar panel systems are good for is reducing your electric bill when the power grid is working.  This has become such a enormous problem that some companies are now specializing in retrofits to make a solar panel system into a true backup power system.  Nuclear EMP poses an additional danger to solar power systems since nuclear EMP can destroy all of the components of an unprotected solar power system.  Solar panels (at least of the polycrystalline and monocrystalline silicon type) have proven to be quite resistant to nuclear EMP, in spite of the fact that the solar panels are just semiconductors that are open to the sky.  Total EMP protection of a solar panel power system is possible, though, and need not be terribly expensive.

Even though solar storms primarily affect the power grid, customers can communicate the importance of EMP and solar storm protection to their local electric utilities.  Devices such as the SolidGround system made by Emprimus can be installed by local electric companies on all of their large transformers that are connected to very long lines.

Although a major electromagnetic disturbance that would destroy large parts of the electrical grid is almost inevitable in the next century, it is important to keep things in the proper perspective.  There is a reasonable chance that people will come to their senses in time, and have the electrical power grid protected before such an event happens.  Although a hardened power grid does not seem likely in the near future, the dangers to the power grid are becoming much more widely known.

Another encouraging trend is the fact that far more people are prepared to be self-sufficient for at least a few weeks than was the case just a few years ago.  The greater the number of people who have made at least minimal preparations for a disaster, the smaller will be the overall impact of the disaster.

Even apartment dwellers on a very low income can have a level of preparedness that will be of significant help.  By buying an extra can of reasonably nutritious canned food every week or so, you can build up a food reserve — before you realize it — that will last you for at least two or three weeks, and probably much longer.  Two or three weeks of “breathing room” after a disaster can give you great peace of mind and allow you to stop and think and plan for a future course of action (while the unprepared are all in a great panic).  It is even possible that some additional help may arrive after a week or two.  The most important thing is to store at least a two-week supply of drinking water.  There are many plastic containers of all sizes that can be stored in a closet that won’t take up an excessive amount of space.

One example of a convenient container for water storage in small spaces is the one gallon polypropylene plastic bottle that is used for Arizona brand teas.  Although these plastic containers are marked with the Resin Identification Code 5 or 7, the Arizona Beverage Company web site states that (at least, as of November 2013 and earlier) the plastic does not contain any bisphenol-A in the container, so they should be safe for long-term water storage.  (As of 2016, the Arizona Beverage web site says nothing about biphenol-A.  I don’t know what this means.)  These one-gallon plastic containers with screw-on plastic lids should be a convenient method of water storage for many people.  Do not keep the water in storage for a very long time without refreshing your supply with new water occasionally, though.  There are larger containers that are made for long-term water storage for those who have the storage space for a longer-term emergency water supply.

Also, don’t forget obvious sources of emergency water like a hot water tank.  A hot water tank should be a last resort, though.  If the emergency turns out to be short-lived, a tank malfunction could cause problems when the heating for the tank comes back on.  Don’t let the existence of water sources like a hot water tank make you lazy.  Have a supply of emergency water that is both quickly accessible and portable.

What just happened???

The most important piece of information you can have after any sort of unusual electrical event is information about what happened.  If there is a bright flash in the sky at the same time that the power goes off, and you’ve been worried about nuclear EMP, your first reaction may be to assume the worst.  There are many other events, however, that can cause a power outage.

If it is a nuclear EMP, though, you will want to know about it right away, and the local radio and television stations are going to all be off the air.  Most of the internet will also be down.   There might be some telephone service if you are very lucky, but anyone that you would call probably won’t know any more than you.  The only way that you will get any timely information will be by listening to broadcasts originating on other continents using a battery-operated shortwave radio.

If you have a shortwave radio, it is likely to be knocked out by the EMP unless it is adequately shielded.  To be adequately shielded, it needs to be kept inside of a complete metallic shielded enclosure, commonly known as a faraday cage, and preferably inside nested faraday cages.  A faraday cage is an total enclosure made out of a good electrical conductor such as copper or aluminum.  (Steel also works well, but it is often more difficult to make a total enclosure with steel.)  Large faraday cages can get extremely complicated.  For small portable electronics, though, completely covering the electronic equipment in heavy-duty aluminum foil makes a good faraday cage around the equipment.  The foil covering needs to be complete, without any gaps.  Wrap the device in plastic or put it in an insulated box before wrapping the covered device in foil.  (Otherwise, the foil may simply conduct the EMP energy into the device more effectively.)  A single layer of foil may not be adequate.  In order to enclose the equipment in a nested faraday cage, place the foil-covered device in a plastic bag, such as a freezer bag, and wrap that bag completely in aluminum foil.  If you really want to protect the equipment against a large EMP, add another layer of plastic and foil.  The layer of plastic needs to be the thickest plastic bags that you can easily find.  (They don’t need to be terribly thick, but do try to find some heavy-duty bags.)

If you have done an absolutely perfect job with the first layer of aluminum foil, the “nested faraday shield” is not needed.  As a practical matter, though, the “nesting” procedure helps greatly in protecting against both inadvertent gaps and possible later accidental punctures through the aluminum foil that may severely compromise the shield.

Just adding many layers of foil directly on top of foil won’t do as much good, due to what is called “skin effect.”   I won’t bother to explain skin effect here, but you can look it up if you’re curious.  Don’t worry too much about skin effect, though.  I only mention it here because many people have the misconception that when it comes to shielding, the thicker the better — and this is definitely not true after a certain thickness is reached.  Layers of shielding separated by insulation works much better.  As a practical matter, though, wrapping with 2 or 3 layers of foil helps to assure that you actually have a good shield around the equipment.  Using heavy-duty aluminum foil can prevent the foil from tearing as easily.

Of course, any antennas or power cords need to be either disconnected or contained completely within the faraday cage.

One question that arises frequently is whether a various kinds of safes or galvanized trash cans make an effective faraday cage.  Technically, it may not be correct to call either of these a faraday cage because they are not constructed of the best electrical conductors.  A locking-lid galvanized metal trash can, though, can be a very effective electromagnetic shield.  Although it can be very effective, it is less than perfect, so the interior of the body of the galvanized metal trash can should be lined with some material to electrically insulate items stored inside the container from the metal exterior.  (Cardboard probably works better than any other inexpensive material for this.  Liners such as plastic trash bags may be too thin for this because of the momentary high voltages that could be induced on the exterior of an imperfect faraday cage during an actual EMP.)  Do not place any insulation at a point where it would interfere with the electrical connection between the metal lid and the metal body of the trash can.  It is also important to wrap any very sensitive items placed inside the metal trash can with a layer of aluminum foil (preferably in the “nested faraday cage” manner described above).

It is important to remember that a galvanized trash can, by itself, is usually an imperfect shield.  It may be good enough for many purposes (such as for storing items that you use frequently or for less sensitive items), but the extra layer of shielding provided by aluminum foil on equipment that is stored on the inside may be a critical factor in a severe EMP.   On a galvanized trash can, the electrical connection between the body of the can and the lid is critical.  For this reason, use only a new galvanized trash can for this purpose.  Dents and distortions in the roundness of the lid and the upper part of the galvanized can severely deteriorate the high-frequency shielding effectiveness of the can.  Also, the lid must be kept very firmly in place for a galvanized trash can to be an effective shield.

The best kind of galvanized trash can to use is one with a handle that also serves to lock the lid in place.  These are generally only available in smaller sized trash cans.  The locking lid trash cansmade by Behrens, and sold by stores such as Home Depot and Lowes, often make excellent electromagnetic shields.  The Behrens locking lid trash cans are only available in 6 and 10 gallon sizes (and the 10 gallon size is rather difficult to find).  In general, if you read the online reviews and find that the most common complaint is the very tight-fitting lid, then the trash can will probably make an excellent shield.

If you use one of these new galvanized cans with a very round top and lid, as well as a very firmly-secured and tight-fitting lid with plenty of overlap onto the body of the can, then the shielding effectiveness is often excellent.  In this case, you may be able to omit any extra shielding, especially for items that you may use frequently.  When there is radio frequency leakage in a well-sealed galvanized can, it is usually in the frequencies above 500 MHz.  These are, for example, the range of the typical cell phone frequencies, and EMP components at these frequencies are at a very low levels in nuclear weapons that have so far been tested above ground.

You can seal the trash can against more advanced EMP weapons that produce a pulse with higher frequency content, but this is usually done at the cost of the convenience offered by the metal trash can.  There are several things that can be done to better seal the connection between the lid and the body of a metal trash can.  The metal EMI finger stock that is made for this purpose would cost about twice as much as the new trash can itself; so this is not the best option, although it is feasible if you want to spend the money.  Simpler options are to stuff steel wool or aluminum foil under the edge of the lid (after it has been closed).  Also, you can seal the lid to the body using aluminum tape.  Be sure to use tape that is actually metallic aluminum.  You can buy aluminum tape from electronics suppliers that has a conductive adhesive.  Often, the conductive adhesive is not necessary unless you are trying to shield frequencies well into the upper microwave range.  A good aluminum-backed tape to use for this purpose is 3M 3340 foil tape, which can be purchased at any building materials store.  The 3M 3340 tape is 2.5 inches (63.5 mm) wide, which give it a good overlap for sealing the potential gaps in a metal container.

Because of variations in the construction of the Behrens locking lid trash cans, it is best to use the 3M 3340 2.5-inch foil tape to tape over the vertical seams on the inside of the trash can.  It may also be a good idea to tape over the seam between the bottom of the trash can and the sides on the interior of the trash can.  Of course, this should be done before adding any interior insulation to the can.

Don’t try to clean up and re-use any kind of used trash can for this purpose.  You need a new one with no dents at all in the lid or where the body attaches to the lid.  When you buy these in a store, they will often have several, so you can choose one with a tight fitting lid and with no visible dents.

I should point out that if you have a faraday cage made of a perfect conductor that is also perfectly sealed, then you don’t need any inner non-conductive lining to insulate it from the items inside.  In such a situation, the outer skin of the faraday cage will block all of the outside signal from even getting to the inner surface of the container.  Practical situations are never that perfect.

Nested electromagnetic shields are always best for reasons that have to do only with practical everyday reality.  In the case of a galvanized trash can, the best shield can be made by putting a smaller trash can inside of a larger one.  (Getting a small can to physically fit inside of what appears to be a larger one is something that is often more difficult than it first appears.)  Use an insulating separator to keep the two trash cans electrically isolated from on another.  put your equipment in the inner (smaller) trash can.  If there is room, you can store some less-sensitive items outside of the inner can.

Some have seen this problem coming for a long time and changed their entire way of life by going off-grid. They have found alternative sources such as solar, wind and diesel to power their homes and machinery. A majority of us, who have not gone off-grid, are making a concerted effort to avoid dependence on this ailing infrastructure and preparing for life without it.

The question about using various kinds of safes as an electromagnetic shield cannot be answered because there are so many variations in construction that would affect the shielding efficiency.  In particular, the electrical connection between the door and the rest of the safe is usually not very good at all.  Such a safe probably has some shielding effectiveness, but in most cases, the shielding is very minimal.  In general, most safes are nearly useless; but a properly prepared locking-lid galvanized trash can will often be very effective.

Many people have tried to use metal filing cabinets as electromagnetic shields, but they usually provide very little in the way of shielding effectiveness.  (The interiors can be retrofitted with wire mesh, but your efforts are usually best expended with more straightforward faraday shields.)


You’ll need to keep plenty of batteries on hand for your radios.  There are some models of shortwave radios that have hand-crank or solar power, but those “emergency radios” that I’ve tried don’t have very good shortwave reception (although, as explained below, many inexpensive shortwave radios could suddenly become very adequate after an EMP event).  A common complaint about radios that use hand-crank power is that the hand cranks are not very sturdy, however the radios will continue to function by using conventional battery power (or solar power if it is available.)  If you do use the hand crank on an emergency radio, though, do not treat the hand crank too roughly.  I still recommend keeping plenty of batteries on hand.

Energizer makes lithium batteries with a 15 year shelf life.  Although small batteries were not damaged during the 1962 high-altitude nuclear tests, it would be wise to store each sealed package of batteries wrapped in a layer of aluminum foil.  Future EMPs may be much larger than the 1962 events.  Also, battery technology is evolving and the sensitivity of newer types of batteries to EMP is unknown (although the cylindrical batteries tend to provide a certain amount of shielding just due to the way that they are constructed.).  I generally prefer Energizer batteries for cylindrical batteries (AA, AAA, C and D sizes) and Duracell for 9-volt batteries.  The 9-volt batteries contain 6 internal cells in series.  In the Duracell 9-volt batteries, the cells are spot welded together, whereas most other popular brands use a simple press-fit interconnect for the cells.  The Duracell spot-weld method generally makes for a much more reliable connection in this type of battery.

Expect battery technology to be a rapidly-expanding area, though.  Duracell has (in some respects) leaped past the Energizer lithium AA and AAA batteries with the Duracell Quantum batteries (introduced in late 2013) with a guaranteed shelf life of 10 years, and which now outperforms the Energizer lithium in some performance tests.

The idea behind having a shortwave radio is to be able to directly receive radio stations on another continent that has been unaffected by the EMP.  The radio that I like best of the portable, and not too expensive, receivers is the SONY ICF-SW7600GR.  This model is not cheap, but you can usually find it for at least 25 percent below its “list price.”

Another good shortwave radio for the price is the Grundig Traveller II Digital G8.   This Grundig radio is much less expensive than the SONY ICF-SW7600GR.  You can usually find the Grundig G8 for around 50 U.S. dollars.  In using the Grundig radio recently, my only complaint was that it seemed to be far more susceptible to electrical noise than many other shortwave radios.  Electrical noise is always a problem when listening to distant shortwave stations, but, of course, in a post-EMP situation, electrical noise would cease to be a problem.

Many people have legitimate complaints about nearly any shortwave radio that can be purchased for less than 300 U.S. dollars.  Those complaints are often valid if the radio is to be used frequently in today’s high levels of electrical noise and radio frequency interference.  In a post-EMP situation, or any situation where the regional electric grid goes down, the situation will be very different.  In today’s electrical environment, certain items like dimmer switches can render almost any shortwave radio unusable inside the building where the dimmer switch is located.

I expect to have some better recommendations for radio receivers on this page sometime in the future.

Keep in mind also that shortwave stations in many countries have stopped beaming their signal toward the United States since so many people simply listen to these broadcasts over the internet.  Also, many of the shortwave stations that do come in clearly are using signal repeaters based close to the United States (mostly in northern Canada) and these might be damaged by an EMP attack.  Many shortwave stations without repeaters or a beam toward North America can still be heard in the United States.  In addition, it is likely that many English-language shortwave stations would re-configure their antenna pattern for better reception in North America after a nuclear EMP attack on the United States.


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