From catastrophic climate change to hostile aliens, Hollywood routinely envisions apocalyptic endings to humanity’s stint on planet Earth.
Global warming is the term used to describe a gradual increase in the average temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere and its oceans, a change that is believed to be permanently changing the Earth’s climate. There is great debate among many people, and sometimes in the news, on whether global warming is real (some call it a hoax). But climate scientists looking at the data and facts agree the planet is warming. While many view the effects of global warming to be more substantial and more rapidly occurring than others do, the scientific consensus on climatic changes related to global warming is that the average temperature of the Earth has risen between 0.4 and 0.8 °C over the past 100 years. The increased volumes of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases released by the burning of fossil fuels, land clearing, agriculture, and other human activities, are believed to be the primary sources of the global warming that has occurred over the past 50 years.
Scientists from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate carrying out global warming research have recently predicted that average global temperatures could increase between 1.4 and 5.8 °C by the year 2100. Changes resulting from global warming may include rising sea levels due to the melting of the polar ice caps, as well as an increase in occurrence and severity of storms and other severe weather events.
Average global sea level has increased eight inches since 1880, but is rising much faster on the U.S. East Coast and Gulf of Mexico. Global warming is now accelerating the rate of sea level rise, increasing flooding risks to low-lying communities and high-risk coastal properties whose development has been encouraged by today’s flood insurance system.
Unless we take immediate action to reduce global warming emissions, these impacts will continue to intensify, grow ever more costly and damaging, and increasingly affect the entire planet — including you, your community, and your family.
It’s the mainstay of disaster movies, but scientists are legitimately worried that a space rock could wipe out Earth. A meteor impact probably doomed the dinosaurs, and in the Tunguska event, a massive meteoroid damaged about 770 square miles (2,000 square kilometers) of the Siberian forest in 1908. Even more frightening, perhaps, is that astronomers only know about a fraction of the space rocks lurking in the solar system.
In a separate report, the researchers looked at 1.2 million potential impactors up to 400 meters across striking around the globe. Winds and shock waves caused about 60 percent of the total deaths from all the asteroids, the team’s simulations showed. Impact-generated tsunamis, which many previous studies suggested would be the top killer, accounted for only around one-fifth of the deaths, Rumpf and colleagues report online April 19 in Geophysical Research Letters.
“These asteroids aren’t an everyday concern, but the consequences can be severe,” says Rumpf, of the University of Southampton in England. Even asteroids that explode before reaching Earth’s surface can generate high-speed wind gusts, shock waves of pressure in the atmosphere and intense heat. Those rocks big enough to survive the descent pose even more hazards, spawning earthquakes, tsunamis, flying debris and, of course, gaping craters.
While the most deadly impact killed around 117 million people, many asteroids posed no threat at all, the simulations revealed. More than half of asteroids smaller than 60 meters across — and all asteroids smaller than 18 meters across — caused zero deaths. Rocks smaller than 56 meters wide didn’t even make it to Earth’s surface before exploding in an airburst. Those explosions could still be deadly, though, generating intense heat that burns skin, high-speed winds that hurl debris and pressure waves that rupture internal organs, the team found.
Tsunamis became the dominant killer for water impacts, accounting for around 70 to 80 percent of the total deaths from each impact. Even with the tsunamis, though, water impacts were only a fraction as deadly on average as land-hitting counterparts. That’s because impact-generated tsunamis are relatively small and quickly lose steam as they traverse the ocean, the researchers found.
The recent research could offer guidance on how people should react to an oncoming impactor: whether to evacuate or shelter in place, or to scramble to divert the asteroid. “If the asteroid’s in a size range where the damage will be from shock waves or wind, you can easily shelter in place a large population,” Chesley says. But if the heat generated as the asteroid falls, impacts or explodes “becomes a bigger threat, and you run the risk of fires, then that changes the response of emergency planners,” .
A global catastrophic risk is a hypothetical future event that has the potential to damage human well-being on a global scale. Some events could cripple or destroy modern civilization. Any event that could cause human extinction is known as an existential risk.
Numerous historical examples of pandemics had a devastating effect on a large number of people. The present, unprecedented scale and speed of human movement make it more difficult than ever to contain an epidemic through local quarantines. A global pandemic has become a realistic threat to human civilization.
Naturally evolving pathogens will ultimately develop an upper limit to their virulence. Pathogen with the highest virulence, quickly killing their hosts reduce their chances of spread the infection to new hosts or carriers.This simple model predicts that – if virulence and transmission are not genetically linked – pathogens will evolve towards low virulence and rapid transmission
Influenza pandemics, defined as global outbreaks of the disease due to viruses with new antigenic subtypes, have exacted a high death toll from human populations. The most devastating pandemic, the so-called Spanish influenza of 1918 to 1919, resulted from an H1N1 virus and caused the deaths of at least 20 million people worldwide 39. Other much less catastrophic pandemics occurred in 1957 (Asian influenza [H2N2 virus]), 1968 (Hong Kong influenza [H3N2 virus]), and 1977 (Russian influenza [H1N1 virus]) 125, 149. It is noteworthy that both the Asian and Hong Kong outbreaks were caused by hybrid viruses, or reassortants, that harbored a combination of avian and human viral genes. Avian influenza viruses are therefore key contributors to the emergence of human influenza pandemics.
In May 1997, an H5N1 influenza virus was isolated from a 3-year-old boy in Hong Kong 222, who died of extensive influenza pneumonia complicated by Reye’s syndrome. By the end of 1997, a total of 18 cases of human influenza had been identified, all caused by the same H5N1 virus. Six of the patients died 31. H5 influenza virus had never been isolated from humans, raising concern over the possibility of a major influenza pandemic among the world’s immunologically naive populations. The H5N1 isolates were not reassortants like the 1957 and 1968 pandemic strains; instead, all of the viral genes had originated from an avian virus .
Although highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses had been identified before the 1997 outbreak in Hong Kong, their devastating effects had been confined to poultry. With the Hong Kong outbreak, it became clear that the virulence potential of these viruses extended to humans. Here we review current knowledge on the ecology, interspecies transmission, and pathogenicity of avian influenza viruses and discuss the human health threats posed by these pathogens.
World population and agricultural crisis
Main articles: Malthusian catastrophe and Human overpopulation
The 20th century saw a rapid increase in human population due to medical developments and massive increases in agricultural productivity such as the Green Revolution.Between 1950 and 1984, as the Green Revolution transformed agriculture around the globe, world grain production increased by 250%. The Green Revolution in agriculture helped food production to keep pace with worldwide population growth or actually enabled population growth. The energy for the Green Revolution was provided by fossil fuels in the form of fertilizers (natural gas), pesticides (oil), and hydrocarbon fueled irrigation.David Pimentel, professor of ecology and agriculture at Cornell University, and Mario Giampietro, senior researcher at the National Research Institute on Food and Nutrition (INRAN), place in their 1994 study Food, Land, Population and the U.S. Economy the maximum U.S. population for a sustainable economy at 200 million. To achieve a sustainable economy and avert disaster, the United States must reduce its population by at least one-third, and world population will have to be reduced by two-thirds, says the study.
The authors of this study believe that the mentioned agricultural crisis will begin to impact us after 2020, and will become critical after 2050. Geologist Dale Allen Pfeiffer claims that coming decades could see spiraling food prices without relief and massive starvation on a global level such as never experienced before.Wheat is humanity’s 3rd most produced cereal. Extant fungal infections such as Ug99 (a kind of stem rust) can cause 100% crop losses in most modern varieties. Little or no treatment is possible and infection spreads on the wind. Should the world’s large grain producing areas become infected then there would be a crisis in wheat availability leading to price spikes and shortages in other food products.
The days of Cold War-era “mutually assured destruction” might be long gone, but nuclear weapons still pose a grave threat to civilization. In 2017 the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War and Physicians for Social Responsibility, who won a Nobel Peace Prize, released a study stating that famine caused by nuclear disaster could kill more than 1 billion people. The group subsequently updated this study a year later, because it underestimated the damage it would unleash on China.
“A billion people dead in the developing world is obviously a catastrophe unparalleled in human history,” Ira Helfand, the report’s author, told the Telegraph. “But then if you add to that the possibility of another 1.3 billion people in China being at risk, we are entering something that is clearly the end of civilization.”
The above study focused mainly on nuclear war between Pakistan and India, where conflict, tension and nuclear weapons abound. However, Helfand tells the Telegraph that the result could be similar in any nuclear conflict. For example, nuclear war between the U.S. and Russia, he says, “we are talking about the possible — not certain, but possible — extinction of the human race.”
The study found that particles kicked into the atmosphere from the weapons would reduce China’s output of rice (10 percent over six years) and wheat (50 percent in the first year), and the U.S. output of corn and soybeans (10 percent in the first decade).
The most inexorable threat to our modern civilization, however, is homegrown—and it strikes much more often than big cosmic impacts do. Every 100,000 years or so, somewhere on Earth, a caldera up to 50 kilometers in diameter collapses and violently expels heaps of accumulated magma. The resulting supervolcano is both unstoppable and ferociously destructive. One such monster, the massive eruption of Mount Toba in Indonesia 74,000 years ago, may have wiped out most humans on Earth, causing a genetic bottleneck still apparent in our DNA—although the idea is controversial.
Ash spreads across North America in computer-simulated eruption of the Yellowstone supervolcano.
By geological convention, a super-volcano is one that produces an explosive eruption of more than 450 cubic kilometers of magma—roughly 50 times more than the eruption of Indonesia’s Mount Tambora in 1815, and 500 times more than the Philippines’ Mount Pinatubo in 1991. Geologists read the histories of such blasts in deposits of erupted material called tuff, and the rock record shows that super-volcanoes tend to be repeat offenders. Locations that remain active today include Toba, the Yellowstone hot spot in the northwestern United States, the Long Valley Caldera in eastern California, the Taupo Volcanic Zone in New Zealand, and several spots in the Andes.
Super-eruptions from massive volcanoes with the power to destroy humanity could take much less time to form than scientists previously thought, it was reported yesterday.
Supervolcanoes are a huge but little understood natural disaster waiting to happen.
Only a handful of such volcanoes exist in the world, but should one erupt the effect would be devastating.
It is thought the sound of a super-eruption would be heard all over the planet, black rain would fall and the sky would darken across the earth.
They are thought to be second only to a massive asteroid impact in terms of the devastation they would visit on the earth.
The huge volcanoes are fuelled by massive magma pools that build up deep beneath the ground.
They were previously thought to take between 100,000 to 200,000 years to build up enough pressure for the massive eruption to take place.`
However research published in the online journal, Public Library of Science ONE, now suggests the process could take just thousands or even hundreds of years.
The research has found that the giant magma pools may actually only exists for a few thousand or even hundred years before they explode.
The new discovery could prove extremely bad news for Yellowstone National Park in the US which has a magma reservoir six miles beneath it.
The reservoir has been rising at record speeds since 2004.
The park in Wyoming is directly above a huge plume of molten rock around 300 miles across at its highest point – 30 miles beneath the ground.
The build-up of hot and molten rock begins at least 400 miles below the surface of the earth.
The Yellowstone Caldera resembles the lid of a cooking pot, and formed when the last super-eruption in that area happened 600,000 years ago.
Scientists believe it could be due to erupt again.
The supervolcano has erupted a total of three times in the last 2.1 million years.
The most recent supervolcano to erupt was Toba 74,000 years ago in Sumatra.
It was ten thousand times bigger than Mt. St Helens and was a global catastrophe.
Lead scientist Dr Guilherme Gualda, from Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee, said “Our study suggests that when these exceptionally large magma pools form they are ephemeral and cannot exist very long without erupting.
“The fact that the process of magma body formation occurs in historical time, instead of geological time, completely changes the nature of the problem.”
Then there are the political challenges of responding to the threat. The 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz in Colombia killed 23,000 people, in part because the government ignored scientists’ forecasts. False alarms can cause trouble, too. In the 1980s, geologic unrest caused officials to warn that California’s Long Valley Caldera could erupt. It didn’t, but local real estate values tanked and the economy suffered.
Some risks, such as that from asteroid impact, with a one-in-a-million chance of causing humanity’s extinction in the next century, have had their probabilities predicted with considerable precision (although some scholars claim the actual rate of large impacts could be much higher than originally calculated). Similarly, the frequency of volcanic eruptions of sufficient magnitude to cause catastrophic climate change, similar to the Toba Eruption, which may have almost caused the extinction of the human race, has been estimated at about 1 in every 50,000 years. The 2016 annual report by the Global Challenges Foundation estimates that an average American is more than five times more likely to die during a human-extinction event than in a car crash.
The relative danger posed by other threats is much more difficult to calculate. In 2008, a small but illustrious group of experts on different global catastrophic risks at the Global Catastrophic Risk Conference at the University of Oxford suggested a 19% chance of human extinction over the next century. The conference report cautions that the results should be taken “with a grain of salt”.
There are significant methodological challenges in estimating these risks with precision. Most attention has been given to risks to human civilization over the next 100 years, but forecasting for this length of time is difficult. The types of threats posed by nature may prove relatively constant, though new risks could be discovered. Anthropogenic threats, however, are likely to change dramatically with the development of new technology; while volcanoes have been a threat throughout history, nuclear weapons have only been an issue since the 20th century. Historically, the ability of experts to predict the future over these timescales has proved very limited. Man-made threats such as nuclear war or nanotechnology are harder to predict than natural threats, due to the inherent methodological difficulties in the social sciences. In general, it is hard to estimate the magnitude of the risk from this or other dangers, especially as both international relations and technology can change rapidly.
Existential risks pose unique challenges to prediction, even more than other long-term events, because of observation selection effects. Unlike with most events, the failure of a complete extinction event to occur in the past is not evidence against their likelihood in the future, because every world that has experienced such an extinction event has no observers, so regardless of their frequency, no civilization observes existential risks in its history. These anthropic issues can be avoided by looking at evidence that does not have such selection effects, such as asteroid impact craters on the Moon, or directly evaluating the likely impact of new technology.
Our grandfathers had more knowledge than any of us today and thrived even when modern conveniences were not available. They were able to produce and store their food for long periods of time. The Lost Ways is the most comprehensive book available. All the knowledge our grandfathers had, in one place.Here’s just a glimpse of what you’ll find in the book:
Table Of Contents:
Making Your Own Beverages: Beer to Stronger Stuff
Ginger Beer: Making Soda the Old Fashioned Way
How North American Indians and Early Pioneers Made Pemmican
Wild West Guns for SHTF and a Guide to Rolling Your Own Ammo
How Our Forefathers Built Their Sawmills, Grain Mills,and Stamping Mills
How Our Ancestors Made Herbal Poultice to Heal Their Wounds
What Our Ancestors Were Foraging For? or How to Wildcraft Your Table
How North California Native Americans Built Their Semi-subterranean Roundhouses
Our Ancestors’Guide to Root Cellars
Good Old Fashioned Cooking on an Open Flame
Learning from Our Ancestors How to Preserve Water
Learning from Our Ancestors How to Take Care of Our Hygiene When There Isn’t Anything to Buy
How and Why I Prefer to Make Soap with Modern Ingredients
Temporarily Installing a Wood-Burning Stove during Emergencies
Making Traditional and Survival Bark Bread…….
Trapping in Winter for Beaver and Muskrat Just like Our Forefathers Did
How to Make a Smokehouse and Smoke Fish
Survival Lessons From The Donner Party
Get your paperback copy HERE
Here’s just a glimpse of what you’ll find in The Lost Ways:
From Ruff Simons, an old west history expert and former deputy, you’ll learn the techniques and methods used by the wise sheriffs from the frontiers to defend an entire village despite being outnumbered and outgunned by gangs of robbers and bandits, and how you can use their wisdom to defend your home against looters when you’ll be surrounded.
Native American ERIK BAINBRIDGE – who took part in the reconstruction of the native village of Kule Loklo in California, will show you how Native Americans build the subterranean roundhouse, an underground house that today will serve you as a storm shelter, a perfectly camouflaged hideout, or a bunker. It can easily shelter three to four families, so how will you feel if, when all hell breaks loose, you’ll be able to call all your loved ones and offer them guidance and shelter? Besides that, the subterranean roundhouse makes an awesome root cellar where you can keep all your food and water reserves year-round.
From Shannon Azares you’ll learn how sailors from the XVII century preserved water in their ships for months on end, even years and how you can use this method to preserve clean water for your family cost-free.
Mike Searson – who is a Firearm and Old West history expert – will show you what to do when there is no more ammo to be had, how people who wandered the West managed to hunt eight deer with six bullets, and why their supply of ammo never ran out. Remember the panic buying in the first half of 2013? That was nothing compared to what’s going to precede the collapse.
From Susan Morrow, an ex-science teacher and chemist, you’ll master “The Art of Poultice.” She says, “If you really explore the ingredients from which our forefathers made poultices, you’ll be totally surprised by the similarities with modern medicines.” Well…how would you feel in a crisis to be the only one from the group knowledgeable about this lost skill? When there are no more antibiotics, people will turn to you to save their ill children’s lives.
If you liked our video tutorial on how to make Pemmican, then you’ll love this: I will show you how to make another superfood that our troops were using in the Independence war, and even George Washington ate on several occasions. This food never goes bad. And I’m not talking about honey or vinegar. I’m talking about real food! The awesome part is that you can make this food in just 10 minutes and I’m pretty sure that you already have the ingredients in your house right now.
Really, this is all just a peek.
The Lost Ways is a far–reaching book with chapters ranging from simple things like making tasty bark-bread-like people did when there was no food-to building a traditional backyard smokehouse… and many, many, many more!
Books can be your best pre-collapse investment.
The Lost Ways (Learn the long forgotten secrets that helped our forefathers survive famines,wars,economic crisis and anything else life threw at them)
Survival MD (Best Post Collapse First Aid Survival Guide Ever)
Conquering the coming collapse (Financial advice and preparedness )
Liberty Generator (Build and make your own energy source)
Backyard Liberty (Easy and cheap DIY Aquaponic system to grow your organic and living food bank)
Bullet Proof Home (A Prepper’s Guide in Safeguarding a Home )
Family Self Defense (Best Self Defense Strategies For You And Your Family)
Survive Any Crisis (Best Items To Hoard For A Long Term Crisis)
Survive The End Days (Biggest Cover Up Of Our President)
Drought USA (Discover The Amazing Device That Turns Air Into Water)