What are Virus
A virus is a submicroscopic infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of an organism.Viruses can infect all types of life forms, from animals and plants to microorganisms, including bacteria and archaea. Since Dmitri Ivanovsky’s 1892 article describing a non-bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants, and the discovery of the tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898, more than 6,000 virus species have been described in detail,] of the millions of types of viruses in the environment.Viruses are found in almost every ecosystem on Earth and are the most numerous type of biological entity. The study of viruses is known as virology, a subspeciality of microbiology.
When infected, a host cell is forced to rapidly produce thousands of identical copies of the original virus. When not inside an infected cell or in the process of infecting a cell, viruses exist in the form of independent particles, or virions, consisting of: (i) the genetic material, i.e. long molecules of DNA or RNA that encode the structure of the proteins by which the virus acts; (ii) a protein coat, the capsid, which surrounds and protects the genetic material; and in some cases (iii) an outside envelope of lipids. The shapes of these virus particles range from simple helical and icosahedral forms to more complex structures. Most virus species have virions too small to be seen with an optical microscope as they are one hundredth the size of most bacteria.
The origins of viruses in the evolutionary history of life are unclear: some may have evolved from plasmids—pieces of DNA that can move between cells—while others may have evolved from bacteria. In evolution, viruses are an important means of horizontal gene transfer, which increases genetic diversity in a way analogous to sexual reproduction. Viruses are considered by some biologists to be a life form, because they carry genetic material, reproduce, and evolve through natural selection, although they lack the key characteristics such as cell structure that are generally considered necessary criteria for life. Because they possess some but not all such qualities, viruses have been described as “organisms at the edge of life”, and as self-replicators.
Viruses spread in many ways. One transmission pathway is through disease-bearing organisms known as vectors: for example, viruses are often transmitted from plant to plant by insects that feed on plant sap, such as aphids; and viruses in animals can be carried by blood-sucking insects. Influenza viruses are spread by coughing and sneezing. Norovirus and rotavirus, common causes of viral gastroenteritis, are transmitted by the faecal–oral route, passed by hand-to-mouth contact or in food or water. The infectious dose of norovirus required to produce infection in humans is less than 100 particles. HIV is one of several viruses transmitted through sexual contact and by exposure to infected blood. The variety of host cells that a virus can infect is called its “host range”. This can be narrow, meaning a virus is capable of infecting few species, or broad, meaning it is capable of infecting many.
China declared the presence of a new contagious and potentially deadly coronavirus. After a month, the epidemic has already taken on exceptional dimensions. There are over a thousand deaths. The outbreak has spread to over fifty countries outside of China. Only the knowledge of the danger can help to overcome it, therefore there is a great need for clear information. Often, however, we receive fragmented information, seasoned with technical terminologies or distorted by the disinformers who infest the web. This book was written to be understood. The author is an expert communicator in the field of scientific subjects.
- Overview on General Impacts and Mitigation Strategies.
The emergence and declaration of COVID-19 as pandemic in early 2020 evoked an unprecedented reaction from the global community that lead countries to enforce lockdowns and movement restrictions. At the IPPC level, these containment measures significantly affected its major pre-planned global events and activities at various levels, including the convening of the CPM-15 and it’s ministerial segment and the promotion of the IYPH 2020, which was declared by UNGA in December 2018. To mitigate the impact of COVID-19 on the planned events, the IPPC is critically considering rescheduling its major pre-planned global events coupled with intensification of reliance of digital implementation of some global activities when feasible.
2. Impacts on Food Security and Mitigation Strategies.
Plants are a primary source of income for nearly half of the global population and make up 80% of the food we eat. The current COVID-19 outbreak experience highlights the need to ensure that plants are protected from the ravages of plant pests. One of the potential consequences of this global emergency is the possibility of disrupted trade and compromised access to a safe and stable supply of food. Therefore, ensuring safe supply of fresh food and protecting plants from pests is now more important than ever. While COVID-19 is affecting human health worldwide, plant pests and diseases continue to pose a threat to food production. It is particularly important at this time to remember that a threat to plant health is a threat to the health and prosperity of people, especially the most vulnerable. In this critical situation, we are all vulnerable and protecting plant health becomes vital for our own wellbeing. This is the noble goal for which the IPPC was created, as expressed by the IYPH slogan: “protecting plants, protecting life”.
3. Impacts on Safe Trade and Mitigation Strategies.
Viruses and diseases do not take passports when moving from one country to another. With globalization and the resulting increase in international travel and trade, plant pests and diseases of different kinds are more likely to be moved across borders with consignments and travelers and spread unintentionally at alarming rates. The current COVID-19 outbreak is showing us that the world must be extra careful with travel of people and be ready to tackle any emergency. In the area of plant health we must also facilitate the safe trade of plants, plant products and other items, such as sea containers that can allow pests to be spread. Detection or quarantine are indispensable security measures to contain an epidemic – be it a human, animal or plant health emergency. The IPPC Secretariat also suggests making use of the IPPC electronic certification (ePhyto) wherever possible. NPPOs and inspection staff may refer to the WHO and FAO official guidance.
4. Impacts on Quarantine staff’s Health and Mitigation Strategies.
The COVID-19 global outbreak is showing the world how adopting preventive measures is essential to secure countries from the introduction and spread of devastating human diseases and that applies to the health of humans, animals and plants. Application of science-based preventive actions, including quarantine measures to contain invasive virus threats are indispensable to protect the health of people, animals and plants alike. Quarantine staff or Inspectors of consignments at the borders may be exposed to sanitary risks that are not addressed. For health and safety concerns regarding consignments, please refer to the WHO guidelines on how to protect human health during the COVID-19 outbreak:
5. Communication, Partnership and Solidarity.
Global coordination is essential to tackle COVID-19. It is time for the international community to act more decisively in a coordinated manner. The international community must take notice and develop a rapid and coordinated response. Adopting divergent measures could be even more catastrophic for countries living in an emergency. Prevention, Preparedness, Public health, Political leadership and People are the top 5 P-words the WHO DG called the world to focus on when considering this COVID-19 pandemic. The plant health community can learn a lot from this and that is why it is important for countries to follow the IPPC International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures when setting their national phytosanitary measures, thus harmonizing measures at a global level. Sharing knowledge and best practices is essential to face global crises and combat common enemies. We strongly encourage you to take technically justified measures to protect Plant Health as another warning from the current emergency.
Your immune system is responsible for responding when you are exposed to viruses and bacteria, when you have a cut or a broken bone, or when your cells begin to change in an abnormal way, as in the early stages of cancer. It also plays the vital role of determining what tissues belong to your body and leaving them alone, and quickly recognizing and eliminating foreign proteins from a bacteria or virus. The immune system is also responsible for inflammation, the natural process that occurs in response to injury. Inflammation is incredibly important to initiate healing, but too much of it can be detrimental and is linked to heart disease, diabetes, cancer and many other illnesses.
The immune system has a very complex job to do. I like to think of this system as an orchestra, in which each instrument plays a vital role, and if one is not functioning at its best, it can throw everything off and quickly turn a symphony into chaos. The key to a functional, strong immune system is balance—keeping the immune system calm and happy on a daily basis, and ensuring it is primed and ready to respond when needed.
Healthy immune function starts with what you feed your body. Plant foods tend to be anti-inflammatory, so consuming lots of fruits, vegetables and whole grains is an important aspect of good immune function. In addition, many studies have linked obesity with impaired immune response, so a plant-based diet can do double-duty to support immune function by also helping you maintain a healthy weight. Regular exercise and managing your stress are also essential aspects of a strong immune system.
Certain herbs can help support your immune system on a long-term basis. Garlic is full of compounds like allicin, ajoene and thiosulfinates, powerful molecules that help your body prevent and fight infections. Garlic also has a rich history of being used topically to disinfect wounds and fight fungal infections. The best way to use garlic for immune support is to consume fresh, crushed garlic. While you may not be daring enough to chomp raw garlic, adding raw garlic to a sauce or pesto is a good and flavorful way to get it in your body.
Horseradish, cayenne and ginger are all considered “blood movers” in Chinese medicine. They stimulate blood flow and, as you might imagine, can kill off many microbes. It is thought that the consumption of spicy foods, including those seasoned with these tasty and potent herbs, can ward off digestive infections. Oregano and thyme are also full of aromatic compounds (the essential oils that make the plants smell so wonderful) that also have potent antimicrobial action. They can be consumed as a culinary spice or as a tea, inhaled to deliver the herbs to the sinuses or lungs (see Steamy Support for Sinuses), or taken in capsules if a stronger medicine is needed.
To take immune support to the next level, consider taking some of these immune boosters on a regular basis, at least through the fall and winter months: mushrooms like shiitake, reishi, chaga and cordyceps, as well as botanicals such as astragalus, elderberry and ashwagandha. Ashwagandha (Withania somniferia), along with many of these herbs, is also an adpatogen, which is a word for a natural substance that helps the body adapt to stress. See Fresh Clips: All About Adaptogens to learn more about adaptogens.
Though not an herb, we include mushrooms because they are potent allies in the quest for a strong immune system. Mushrooms such as maitake, shiitake, reishi and chaga all contain a complex array of nutrients that help to support good immune function. These include complex polysaccharides which appear to act as immunomodulators–this means they can stimulate an underactive immune system and calm an overactive immune system, acting as immune balancers.
The best-studied polysaccharide is called beta-D-glucan. This complex sugar is well-absorbed when mushrooms are consumed and is currently being studied for its potential role in treating cancer, HIV and AIDS. It is thought to work by stimulating specialized white blood cells (called macrophages and neutrophils) which can recognize and kill tumor cells, remove damage caused by free radicals, speed up recovery of damaged tissue, and activate other immune responses when necessary.
Research has shown that medicinal mushrooms also can help prevent white blood cell diminishment in people given chemotherapy and radiation, and can elevate antibody levels (proteins that help identify foreign invaders) in healthy people.
Shiitake mushrooms are available at most grocery stores and are a delicious way to incorporate mushrooms into your food. Sometimes labeled “baby portabellos,” they can be substituted in any recipe that calls for button mushrooms to increase the healthfulness of the meal. Traditionally, mushrooms are decocted, or simmered, for hours to brew a strong tea. I recommend brewing a large batch and freezing the mushroom tea, which can be added to broths, soups and other foods when cooking.
Astragalus contains many compounds similar to the medicinal mushrooms. I will often add astragalus to immune preparations to take regularly as a preventive.
Take a look at this collection The Lost Book Of Remedies, taken word for word out of a circa 1845 manual.
What is The Lost Book of Remedies? The Lost Book of Remedies PDF contains a series of medicinal and herbal recipes to make home made remedies from medicinal plants and herbs. Chromic diseases and maladies can be overcome by taking the remedies outlined in this book. The writer claims that his grandfather was taught herbalism and healing whilst in active service during world war two and that he has treated many soldiers with his home made cures.
Fighting Flu and Colds
If you happen to come down with a viral or bacterial infection, herbs can provide a lot of relief. The following herbs, including elderberry, echinacea, goldenseal and andrographis, are some of my favorites for when you’re hit with illness.
Elderberry (Sambucus nigra) is probably the most delicious herb used to support a strong immune system. Elderberry has been used for centuries to treat colds, flu and other viral infections. Native to Europe, Asia and North America, it can tolerate a wide variety of growing conditions. The blue and black berries, along with the flowers, are used to make syrup or are taken dried as a food. Elderberries are a great source of vitamins A, B and C, and contain a high level of flavonoids, anti-inflammatory compounds that can promote healthy cell function.
Elderberry has been studied for its antiviral effects. Several studies have demonstrated that people who consumed elderberry syrup (1 tablespoon daily) had a lower incidence of viral infection than those who did not. Also, people who took elderberry syrup at the onset of their first cold symptoms experienced a shorter duration of illness than those who did not.
The best thing about elderberry is that it is truly delicious and is very safe, even in children and the elderly. Elderberry syrup is conventionally available, and can be eaten right off the spoon, or used more exotically. In our household, we drizzle it over oatmeal or add it to seltzer water for a delicious elderberry spritzer.
Echinacea and Goldenseal
Echinacea and goldenseal, often paired together, are probably the best-known herbs for immune support, especially for acute illnesses. In general, human studies have found that echinacea taken orally stimulates the function of a variety of immune cells. Although contradictory evidence exists, most studies suggest that the correct varieties of echinacea can speed the recovery from the common cold by stimulating the immune system to respond faster and better (versus killing the virus directly). Many beautiful varieties of echinacea abound, but the medicine is in E. purpurea or E. angustifolia.
Research studies looking at echinacea as a preventive herb seem to be mostly negative. This suggests that the best use of echinacea is to take it only when needed, or when illness strikes. Echinacea is most often used as a tincture (about 1 teaspoon three times daily) or as an encapsulated herb taken immediately when you are coming down with a viral infection.
Goldenseal has always been thought to have direct antibacterial and antiviral action, although research has demonstrated that its action is more diverse than that. The antimicrobial action comes from a compound called berberine, which is present in goldenseal and many related plants. It is thought that goldenseal also acts by increasing the secretion of mucous membranes, making your nose and mouth more effective at warding off microbes. Because of goldenseal’s popularity, it has become overharvested in the wild and is now at risk for becoming an endangered species. I recommend only sourcing goldenseal from companies that farm their own, or avoid its use altogether and choose different herbs for immune support.
Few people have heard of andrographis, an herb native to India and Sri Lanka, but it is the herb with the best research in the area of immune support. Studies on andrographis have demonstrated that it can be used to successfully reduce the severity of the common cold. It also has been demonstrated to prevent the onset of a cold in healthy people. It is thought that andrographis can stimulate many types of immune cells to jump into action and fight off viral invaders. Look for a product that contains andrographolides, the active constituents in andrographis, and take enough to get 15 to 20 mg of andrographolides per dose, dosed three times daily.
Steamy Support for Sinuses
To deliver immune-boosting herbs directly where you need them most, consider an herbal steam. Herbal steams are great for respiratory conditions that affect your nose, throat and lungs. To make an herbal steam, bring 4 to 6 cups of water to a boil and then remove from heat. Add 1 to 5 drops essential oil to hot water. Hold your head about 12 to 18 inches above the pot and drape a towel over your head to make a tent. Breathe deeply for 5 to 10 minutes to give yourself a wonderful, healing treatment.
For children, you may also consider using essential oils dropped onto a shelf in a hot shower or bath. The steam will pick up the oils and deliver them in a less concentrated, gentler way.
Consider using one or more of the following:
Thyme: Contains potent antiviral and antibacterial properties delivered right to the lungs and sinuses.
Eucalyptus: The herb of choice to clear congestion
Lavender: A calming, soothing aromatic that also delivers antimicrobial action to an irritated respiratory tract.
A Plan of Action
When preparing yourself for the winter months, think of supporting your strong immune system in three ways:
• Follow a healthy lifestyle that allows your immune system to thrive. Base your diet around fruits, vegetables and whole grains. Decrease your intake of refined foods, sugar and alcohol, all of which have been shown to decrease resistance to infection. Get lots of fresh air and regular exercise to promote healthy immune function, and keep your stress level as low as possible.
• Consider adding to your regime herbs that can support healthy immune function. These may include culinary herbs such as garlic, onions, horseradish, ginger, cayenne, oregano, thyme or mushrooms. You also might consider using elderberry through the fall and winter for an extra preventive boost.
• When needed, turn to your botanical powerhouses. Use andrographis, echinacea and elderberry in higher doses to combat illness and help shorten your suffering when exposed to a viral infection.
Do you know about the gift of nature to save the life of people from various health problems and make them feel secure by curing significant issues? How to live healthy in this world without having chronic diseases or illness or any other health issues which may hurt you physically and mentally? Due to dense population, people are trying to demolish the forest, garden areas to create shelter, so they forced to destroy the nature’s gift such as natural ingredients, secret medicinal herbs and more which are grown in wild forest, mountains and other places. When you read this review entirely, sure you will get chance to know about secrets medicinal ingredients, herbs and more used by our ancestor to get back the lost health without losing your life. Claude Davis was highlighted all the stuff in the form of the e-book The Lost Book Of Remedies filled with a list of natural ingredients and remedies that you can quickly grow in the backyard or at free space to include it in your routine diet or external usage to get well soon.
Carnivore’s Bible (is a wellknown meat processor providing custom meat processing services locally andacross the state of Montana and more. Whether your needs are for domestic meator wild game meat processing)
The Lost Book of Remedies PDF ( contains a series of medicinal andherbal recipes to make home made remedies from medicinal plants and herbs.Chromic diseases and maladies can be overcome by taking the remediesoutlined in this book. The writer claims that his grandfather was taughtherbalism and healing whilst in active service during world war twoand that he has treated many soldiers with his home made cures. )
Easy Cellar(Info about building and managing your root cellar, plus printable plans. The book on building and using root cellars – The Complete Root Cellar Book.)
The Lost Ways (Learn the long forgotten secrets that helped our forefathers survive famines,wars,economic crisis and anything else life threw at them)
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Conquering the coming collapse (Financial advice and preparedness )
Liberty Generator (Build and make your own energy source)
Backyard Liberty (Easy and cheap DIY Aquaponic system to grow your organic and living food bank)
Bullet Proof Home (A Prepper’s Guide in Safeguarding a Home )
Family Self Defense (Best Self Defense Strategies For You And Your Family)
Survive Any Crisis (Best Items To Hoard For A Long Term Crisis)
Survive The End Days(Biggest Cover Up Of Our President)