DANGEROUS COSMIC WAVE
The gravitational wave background (also GWB and stochastic background) is a possible target of gravitational wave detection experiments. The detection of such a background would have a profound impact on early-universe cosmology and on high-energy physics. The emission of gravitational waves from astrophysical sources can create a stochastic background of gravitational waves. For instance, a sufficiently massive star at the final stage of its evolution will collapse to form either a black hole or a neutron star – in the rapid collapse during the final moments of an explosive supernova event, which can lead to such formations, gravitational waves may theoretically be liberated. Also, in rapidly rotating neutron stars there is a whole class of instabilities driven by the emission of gravitational waves.
Efforts to detect the gravitational wave background are ongoing. On 11 February 2016, the LIGO and Virgo collaborations announced the first direct detection and observation of gravitational waves, which took place in September 2016. In this case, two black holes had collided to produce detectable gravitational waves. This is the first step to discovery of the GWB.
The COSMIC WAVE, or CMB, is radiation that fills the universe and can be detected in every direction. Microwaves are invisible to the naked eye so they cannot be seen without instruments. Created shortly after the universe came into being in the Big Bang, the CMB represents the earliest radiation that can be detected. Astronomers have likened the CMB to seeing sunlight penetrating an overcast sky.
Looking out into deep space, and therefore back into deep time, astronomers see the CMB radiation saturating space beginning at about 378,000 years after the Big Bang. Before the creation of the CMB, the universe was a hot, dense and opaque plasma containing both matter and energy. Photons could not travel freely, so no light escaped from those earlier times.
The CMB also provides insight into the composition of the universe as a whole. Most of the universe is made up of dark energy, the mysterious force that drives the accelerating expansion of the universe. The next largest ingredient is dark matter, which only interacts with the rest of the universe through its gravity.
Normal matter, including all the visible stars, planets and galaxies, makes up less than 5 percent of the total mass of the universe.
The CMB is the oldest light we can see–the farthest back both in time and space that we can look. This light set out on its journey more than 14 billion years ago, long before the Earth or even our galaxy existed. It is a relic of the universe’s infancy, a time when it was not the cold dark place it is now, but was instead a firestorm of radiation and elementary particles. The familiar objects that surround us today–stars, planets, galaxies and the like–eventually coalesced from these particles as the universe expanded and cooled.
This residual radiation is critical to the study of cosmology because it bears on it the fossil imprint of those particles, a pattern of miniscule intensity variations from which we can decipher the vital statistics of the universe, like identifying a suspect from his fingerprint.
When this cosmic background light was released billions of years ago, it was as hot and bright as the surface of a star. The expansion of the universe, however, has stretched space by a factor of a thousand since then. The wavelength of the light has stretched with it into the microwave part of the electromagnetic spectrum, and the CMB has cooled to its present-day temperature, something the glorified thermometers known as radio telescopes register at about 2.73 degrees above absolute zero.
A COSMIC WAVE IS SET TO HIT THE EARTH AROUND DECEMBER 26TH, 2016…THIS WILL CAUSE SERIOUS EARTHQUAKES AND PRODUCE SERIOUSLY DANGEROUS LEVELS OF RADIATION.
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As the universe expanded, the total amount of light and matter had to fill a continually increasing volume of space, so the density of each had to decrease. But the expansion of space also stretched out the waves of the light traveling through it. And the longer the wavelength of light, the lower its energy. So the expansion of space caused the energy density of light to decrease even faster than the density of matter. Consequently, most of the energy of the universe was soon in the form of matter instead of radiation, and today we live in a matter-dominated universe.
The three scientists recognized that the radiant energy of the Big Bang must still exist in the universe today, although greatly reduced in intensity by the expansion of space. Alpher and Herman went on to calculate the present temperature corresponding to this energy. The answer they got was 5 K, which means 5 degrees above absolute zero on the Kelvin scale. (At absolute zero, the lowest possible temperature, molecular motion and thermal radiation come to a complete stop.) Radiant energy at a temperature of 5 K is mostly in the frequency band of microwaves.
Alpher and Herman in effect predicted that the universe today should be awash in a faint but uniform bath of microwave energy coming from every direction—the remnant glow from the Big Bang. But they made no attempt to search for it. As theoretical physicists, not observational astronomers, they perhaps assumed that the technology required for such an observation did not yet exist. Furthermore, radio astronomy was in its infancy in those days, and the handful of radio astronomers who might have known how to use the available technology to search for the microwave background radiation were unaware of the published theoretical prediction. So for several years the debate between the steady state and Big Bang theories continued, in the absence of any strong observational evidence in favor of one over the other.
In 1964, Arno A. Penzias and Robert W. Wilson at the Bell Telephone Laboratories in New Jersey began investigating the microwave radio emissions from the Milky Way and other natural sources. They had a very sensitive detector connected to a large horn-shaped antenna, previously used for satellite communication. When the two scientists tuned their equipment to the microwave portion of the spectrum, they discovered an annoying background static that wouldn’t go away. No matter where they pointed the antenna, or when, the microwave static was the same. They spent months running down every possible cause for the static, including pigeon droppings inside the antenna, but they couldn’t find a source or a solution.
At about the same time, Princeton physicist Robert H. Dicke had come to his own conclusion that residual radiation from the Big Bang must still be present in the universe. He did not know about the previously published work by Gamow, Alpher, and Herman. So Dicke independently calculated that the lingering radiation should have a temperature of about 10 K. He realized that it should be observable in the microwave portion of the spectrum. His research team was in the process of building an antenna to search for it when he learned that Penzias and Wilson had discovered a persistent microwave background noise. Dicke turned to his colleagues and said simply, “They’ve got it.”
Penzias and Wilson had stumbled on the first observational evidence to support the Big Bang theory of the origin of the universe. For this discovery they shared the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1978. Subsequent observations of the microwave background at different wavelengths have refined the value of the radiation temperature of the universe to 2.73 K. This is about half the value calculated by Alpher and Herman in 1948, but their result is widely regarded as a successful prediction in view of the approximations required by the calculation. The discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation led most astronomers to accept the Big Bang theory.
The few who dissent from Big Bang theory include, among others, the authors of the original steady state theory. They suggest that ordinary starlight, not the Big Bang, produced the microwave background radiation. If this were true, there would have to be a mechanism, as yet unverified, to convert the visible starlight into the observed microwave spectrum. The dissenters continue to investigate such possibilities.
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